Capacitor cycle life and operating voltage are governed by the lack of impurities left over from the electrode casting process. Maxwell Technologies claims a solvent – less, dry process can double the cycle life of their capacitors. In this podcast I also discuss the viability of this dry process for manufacturing battery electrodes.
I receive a lot of interest regarding setting up R&D programs for lithium ion batteries. In this podcast I dissect the defining elements of a successful battery R&D program. If your company is interested in this type of venture or if you are a student entering this field at an early stage, you may find this episode more interesting than my typical podcast. Enjoy!
The first high voltage cathodes were proposed by John Goodenough in the form of LCO (lithium cobalt oxide) and they were quickly adopted as commercial materials. In an effort to lower costs (cobalt is expensive), analogous LNO (lithium nickel oxide) cathodes have recently been commercialized as doped NCM (nickel, cobalt, manganese) and NCA (nickel, cobalt, aluminum) cathodes. Modern NCM/NCA contain only 5% cobalt and cobalt free derivatives may soon become a reality. Learn how and why in this podcast.
NCM622 capacity fade paper from Brookhaven National Lab
Currently accepted cathode dogma preaches the root cause of capacity fade in Ni rich NMC is the irreversible phase change of the active material crystalline structure. However, recent findings challenge the status quo. Listen to my podcast to learn more.
The positive electrode of a lithium ion cell is called a cathode and is responsible for the high voltage of the cell. In this podcast I review commercial cathode chemistries such as LCO, LFP, LMO and NCM/NCA.
The Holy Grail of anodes is a lithium metal anode. Taming this temperamental beast has been unsuccessful so far, but it is bound to change. In this podcast I discuss a composite separator membrane which enables plating lithium with 3x the speed and 3x the quantity (capacity) of commercial lithium ion cells.
Fast charge is limited by the reduction (lithiation) potential and nature of the anode. If charged too fast, graphite anodes may be plated with lithium metal because their lithiation potential is too close to the plating potential of lithium. Faster charge can be accomplished with anodes which lithiate at higher potentials (such as NTO). The trade-off is lower cell energy since there will be a smaller voltage difference between anode and cathode. However, there are anode materials which may bypass this energy – fast charge compromise. Listen to my podcast to learn more.
Belharouk et al, 2018, Electrochemical Communications – charging limits of NCM811 cathodes and graphite anodes
Bhagat et al, 2018, Electrochimica Acta – charging limits of commercial energy cell
Miller et al, 2017, SAE – charging limits of commercial power cell
In this podcast I discuss the charging rate limits for commercial electrode materials as well as commercial cells. They are faster than you may think.
Currently commercial lithium ion batteries typically charge in 1.5 – 2 hours. ‘Fast charge’ is limited to 30 – 45 minutes and with harsh consequences on cycle life and safety. However, there are battery electrode materials which blur the capacitor/battery line. MoS2 has been claimed by professor Dunn (UCLA) to be such a “pseudocapacitor”. This podcast discusses a patent claiming a pseudocapacitor electrode material which can charge in 2.5 minutes for > 10,000x and with a capacity > 120mAh/g.