9. Solid Polymer Electrolytes from Hydro-Québec

Crosslinked solid polymer electrolytes (SPE)

Patent

Epoxy (oxiranes) crosslinking with amines

Jeffamines (polyetheramines linked to amines – low temp crosslinking agents)

HydroQuebec

Karim Zaghib – director of the institute

Glycidyl methacrylate/poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate random copolymer before crosslinking with ethylenediamine.

Hydro-Québec has been a leading solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) innovation engine for more than 20 years. It has already licensed legitimate solid battery technologies to electric car manufacturers such as Bluecar and Dongshi Kingpower. While initially limited to LFP cathodes and 80C operating temperature, current SPE technology extends to high voltage NCM, NCA or LCO cathodes and can operate at a lower temperature of 40C. SPE electrolytes are also stable with lithium metal electrodes guaranteeing higher energy densities than lithium ion cells with conventional liquid electrolytes.

Cycle life of solid state batteries with SPE is governed by the electrochemical stability of the polymer during cycling. Since most such polymers are crosslinked in order to improve their mechanical and electrochemical properties, residual crosslinking agent may often remain in the SPE during battery operation. This may cause undesired side reactions and accelerate deterioration of SPE. In this patent, Hydro-Québec discloses a crosslinking strategy which improves electrochemical stability.

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6. Lithium metal anodes (fast as snails?!)

Faster Li plating through LLZO solid electrolytes. Latest from the Sakamoto group.
LLZO solid electrolyte pelltet. Easy to work with in small areas. But how can large, thin sheets be made for commercial applications?

Paper link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378775318306529

Sakamoto group page: https://sakamoto.engin.umich.edu/people/

News article: https://news.umich.edu/battery-breakthrough-doubling-performance-with-lithium-metal-that-doesnt-catch-fire/

Plating lithium metal anodes through inorganic solid electrolytes is challenging and slow due to proliferation of dendrites along the grain boundary where ionic conductivity is higher. Sakamoto’s group shares evidence of rate improvements without dendritic growth with LLZO solid electrolytes.